1. Dana – charity – having a willingness to sacrifice one’s interests for the people.
2. Sila – morality – maintaining a high moral order in one’s personal conduct.
3. Pariccaga – altruism – being generous towards the people, avoiding selfishness.
4. Ajjava – honesty - fulfilling one’s duties with loyalty and integrity.
5. Maddava - gentleness – being kind and gentle, never arrogant.
6. Tapa – self control – to perform one’s duties with dispassion.
7. Akkhoda – non-anger – remaining calm in the midst of confusion.
8. Avihimsa – (non-violence) – being non-violent, not persecuting the people.
9. Khanti – (forbearance) – practicing patience in one’s duties.
10. Avirodhana – (uprightness) – respecting public opinion, promoting harmony.
Historically, there was a man who exemplified the ten rajadhamma, and that man was called King Ashoka (304-232 BCE), who ruled India for forty-one years (pictured above). Initially, he was a great warrior general, winning many battles, and continued to expand the Indian empire during the first eight years of his reign. After one particularly bloody campaign, King Ashoka wandered the sight of his army’s victory, and seeing the carnage all around him, famously cried out, “What have I done?” Following this, he embraced Buddhism, establishing a just kingdom along Buddhist lines and was known as ‘Dhammashoka’ – “Pious Ashoka.” He promoted wildlife protection, banning hunting for sport, built universities, hospitals for people and animals, and constructed irrigation systems for trade and agriculture. He also renounced the use of violence, ceasing all military campaigns against his neighbours, instead sending monks and nuns abroad to spread the Buddhist Teachings on wisdom and kindness. Indeed, a son and daughter of King Ashoka’s who were monk and nun took Buddhism to Sri Lanka, where it remains the predominant faith to this day. This is not to say that he promoted Buddhism at the expense of other religions, however, as he also encouraged tolerance and understanding between different creeds and ethnic groups. King Ashoka is remembered by Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike as an example of a truly compassionate and just ruler, who lived according to the ten rajadhamma.
Now, this tenfold list of kingly responsibilities is surely a set of qualities that would make any ruler a great leader of their country today, just as King Ashoka was in ancient India. But do such leaders exist nowadays, one might ask, considering the many examples of politicians that have been exposed as anything but charitable, moral, or honest? Scandals have involved so many political and royal figures that it seems nigh on impossible to find one that comes anywhere near the ideals in the Ten Duties.
Thailand does have a leader that is considered to be the embodiment of these qualities, however: His Royal Highness King Bhumibol. With his numerous development projects to help the Thai people, and his reputation for helping those in need, the King is a figurehead that gets directly involved with the concerns of his people. His work in the area of rain-making to help the millions of Thais working the land is well documented. He is a deeply loved man, whose popularity is directly related to the public perception that he exudes the Ten Kingly Duties.
Ajahn Sumedho has spoken on the subject of the Ten Royal Duties, saying that rather than simply applying them to our presidents and prime ministers, to see if they’re really up to the job of governance, we can reflect on them with regards ourselves. We can contemplate our own behaviour, as well those who are in positions of power, to see if we are ruling our own lives in the spirit of the rajadhamma. After all, what’s the point of having a good constitution, a great leader and government, if we the people are selfish, unwise, violent, and ignoble?